Introducing the Nooshabad underground city
Nooshabad underground city, a journey into the depths of Iran’s history!
In this article, we’ll describe one of the most amazing cities in the world, the underground city of Nooshabad. We’ll share interesting and exciting information with you about this ancient place, which is a relic of the Sassanid era and holds a history of 1500 years, and the story of the discovery. The underground city of Oui or the Nooshabad underground city is an underground and ancient city under the urban texture of the new city of Nooshabad. Nooshabad is one of the cities of Aran and Bidgol county in Isfahan province. This city, which is known as one of the capitals of the Sassanids in the Anushirvan period, is located 5 km north of Kashan city (the city of ancient Sialk hill) and 3 km northwest of Aran and Bidgol city. Although the history of the creation and use of these buildings goes back to the Sassanid era and the beginning of Islam, but based on the evidence, it was utilized in later periods, until the Safavid period.
The structure of the underground city of Nooshabad
The Nooshabad underground city contains a dense, complex, and extensive structure that consists of nested narrow corridors and small-sized rooms. The Oui complex was constructed under the old structure of Noushabad city and has expanded to the current level of the city. The area of the discovered part of the Nooshabad underground city is about 12000 square meters, which has been expanded on both horizontal and vertical levels due to the connection between the neighborhoods and the protection of people’s lives and property in times of insecurity.
So far, 3 important parts of Noushabad underground city have been discovered and explored; The first complex is about 1000 square meters and the second complex is about 4000 square meters. These two collections have been prepared for tourists to visit. But the third complex, which is bigger than the previous two and includes an area of about 7000 square meters, has not yet been opened to the public.
The soil of this area has high strength and stability, as a result, the structure of the city has been preserved as it has stood for thousands of years, and there are no signs of collapse or major structural changes. Except for the main entrance, the height of all parts of the underground city of Nooshabad is equal to the natural height of a human and between 170 and 180 cm. On the walls in a row and at short intervals, there are places for installing tallow lamps, which were necessary to supply the city’s lighting. In some parts, short platforms for sitting have been created inside the wall, which in some rooms become ledges for placing things. At the beginning of the entrance of complexes one and two, a special room has been installed for the needs of toileting during the underground accommodation. According to the observations of archaeological experts, the Nooshabad underground city consists of 3 separate floors: the first floor is located 4-6 meters underground, the second floor is located 12-16 meters underground, and the third floor is located 18-22 meters underground.
Accessibility and entrances to the underground city of Nooshabad
To enter the underground city of Nooshabad, there are two entrances that are fully separate from each other and have no connection with each other. That is, after visiting one entrance, you have to exit the underground city and walk some distance to reach another entrance and enter another part of the city. Entrance No. 1 is located at a depth of 11 meters and entrance No. 2 is located at a depth of 12 meters from the surface of the ground, and the communication wells of the floors and air intake channels are visible in both entrances. Of course, these entries were related in the past; But with the passage of time and the occurrence of floods and digging wells, they have been separated from each other. To enter and visit this city, you have to go down more than 40 steep steps that lead you to the entrance of the reservoir.
Air condition of the underground city of Nooshabad
The process of air conditioning of the Nooshabad underground city is through the channels created on the first floor and to the ground level. The related wells of the floors, in addition to the function of passage, have caused air to flow on the lower floors. This practice also applies to aqueduct wells. The shape of these well corridors is in the shape of the letter “L” and this issue causes the difference in air pressure and the arrival of fresh air and oxygen to the basement floors.
Access to these spaces is possible due to entering underground through a well and a narrow and short channel. The issue of defence and shelter of this type of architecture created in the heart of the earth has had a significant impact on how to present its architectural plan; Therefore, regarding the entrance, access to these spaces should not be done easily.
The lighting of these spaces was provided by means of clay burners, and their oil was probably prepared from two historic distilleries in the underground city of Nooshabad. In times of insecurity and taking shelter in the basement, the residents’ drinking water is provided from the aqueducts.
Architectural wonders of the Nooshabad underground city
The Nooshabad underground city is about four kilometers long, and you can visit only 400 meters. One of the incredible wonders of the underground city of Nooshabad is that it was carved by hand in the Sassanid period without modern facilities. This issue has caused the underground city of Nooshabad known as the largest example of hand-digging architecture in the world.
Another outstanding architectural feature of this complex is the division of spaces and their functional zoning. So, the first floor of the Nooshabad underground city is made of corridors that are meant to mislead the pursuers and enemies, and the second and third floors were the places where people lived, stored food, and sheltered.
The first floor of Noushabad underground city
The entrance to the first floor is short and narrow, so it is not easy for everyone to recognize it. Upon entering, you will see many corridors and tunnels that are designed to confuse pursuers and attackers, which they could easily use to hide and escape. Take advantage of the holes created on the walls of this floor, making it easier and faster to do these things.
The second and third floors of Nushabad underground city
On the second and third floors of the underground city of Nooshabad, the rooms and halls are bigger, and it is possible to live and stay for a while on these floors, and also supplies and necessities are maintained on these floors. The lighting of these floors is fascinating, it is done by building ledges inside the walls of these two floors, some of which are about 20 cm away from the ceiling. This ledge can be used both for sitting and placing the tallow burner, which needs tallow oil or olive oil to create light. It is interesting to know that one of the tallow lamps discovered in this city is 700 years old.
The underground city of Nooshabad, a safe hiding place
The underground city of Nooshabad is a unique example of a military and defense structure, which is known as the largest underground city in the world. According to archaeologists, the area of the entire city reaches more than 15,000 square meters, and it was built to protect people’s lives and property in times of insecurity and not for permanent living. It was this, that caused Noushabad to become a mysterious settlement for invaders. Imagine a moment when food is cooking on the stove, clothes are on the line and everything tells of life; But there is no one in the city and no sound of movement is heard; So where have the people gone? No one could imagine that life goes on under the city.
What awaits you in the underground city of Nooshabad
– The amazing atmosphere and the special structure of the underground city of Nooshabad tells you the experience of a different life to stay safe from the attack of enemies.
– You can see the world’s largest underground city and be amazed by the engineering, creativity, and architectural art used in it.
– The guides of the Nooshabad underground city will double the pleasure of your visit and tell you all the stories of this city.
– At entrance number 2, you can taste the taste of Anusha coffee, which is special for Noushabad and was served in the joyous and mourning ceremonies since ancient times. This coffee is mixed with oriental spices and sugar and brewed for five hours.
– After visiting the underground city of Nooshabad, you can visit the historical attractions of Kashan such as Boroujerdi House, Agha Bozorg Mosque, and Fin Bathroom.