Presenting the city of Ferdows

Ferdows, The Paradise of Persia

Ferdows city is one of the northeastern cities of Iran and South Khorasan province. This city is located at a distance of 345 km south of Mashhad and 195 km northwest of Birjand and on the main route connecting Yazd, Kerman, Isfahan, and Fars provinces to Mashhad. The height of city is 1293 meters above sea level. The population of this city is about 30,000 people. This city was known as Toon until 1308 and is known for its history and products such as pomegranate and saffron.

History of Ferdows city

The city of Ferdows holds a rich history. Archaeological investigations and the existence of ancient areas and hills prove the prosperity of this region before Islam. Some discoveries in Ferdows city by archaeologists date back to the third millennium AD, and since then, things from the first millennium, the Sassanid era, and various Islamic periods have been found, which indicate the continuity of life in different periods in this city.

Ferdows was called “Toon” until 1308 AD, and in old texts, it was called “Balada Tayyiba Toon” and in correspondence of the Safavid era, it was named “Dar al-Mominin Toon”. The first existing book that mentions Toon is the 4th century Hijri book, Ashkal al-Alami Jihani, which mentions Toon as a prosperous and large city. It has been seen under the name of Toon on various occasions in texts and travelogues, and after that, it has been mentioned as a big and prosperous city. The location and historical evidence show that in the distant past, when Toon had a reliable historical and demographic value, especially until the Ismaili era and even centuries after that, it belonged to the province of Qahestan. Toon state was one of the regions of Qahestan, which was the second most important center of the Ismaili sect after Alamut and lasted until the Mongol invasion. Remains of the fortresses of that era, such as Ferdows Castle Hill and Hassan Abad Castle (Girl Castle) can also be noticed.

The people of Toon city were slaughtered in the Mongol attack and forty thousand Ismailis were killed in Toon, which was built a hill from the corpses of the people, and on that hill, the throne of Halakukhan was placed. This hill, which became known as “Takht-e Halako”, remained near the Ferdows moat until a few decades ago, which unfortunately was destroyed in the past decades.

This city, which was very prosperous during the Safavid period, lost most of its population during the famine of the 11th century again. At the beginning of the last century, I was still one of the important cities of Khorasan province, as Ferdows municipality was acquired in 1925, it was the 17th municipality in Iran and the second municipality of Mashhad city in Greater Khorasan province.

The dialect of the people of Ferdows

The people of Ferdows speak the Tooni dialect. This dialect is one of the oldest Persian dialects in Khorasan, which largely contains the older features of the Persian language. Although this dialect is a subset of the Persian language in terms of the vocabulary it contains, due to the structural differences in the use of verbs and sentences with the official language of the country, fewer foreign words have entered it compared to other Khorasan dialects. The tone and weight of the words in this word are expressive in such a way that it is understood by an unfamiliar listener.

The weather in Ferdows city

The weather of Ferdows has a significant difference between night and winter due to its desert. On summer days It is hot and dry, and in winter is cold and rainy. Most of the annual rainfall falls from November to March. November is the coldest month and July is the hottest month of the year.

Ferdows city and tourism

City is located in a strategic position on the main communication route from Northeast to South and Southwest of Iran. Bejastan-Ferdows-Dihok road is a part of the 78 Asia highway that connects Turkmenistan and Central Asia with Bandar Abbas. Also, the main axis of communication between Mashhad and the southern provinces of Iran (except Sistan and Baluchistan) passes through Ferdows. The main communication route from Yazd, Isfahan, Fars, and Bushehr provinces to Mashhad is via road 68 to Dihok and then the route to Ferdows and then Mashhad via road 91.

The location of city in the connection of the southern provinces of Iran with Mashhad has caused many people to pass through this city. On the other hand, the tourist attractions of this city, such as Ferdows holiday and recreational places in the north and northeast of it, many historical monuments, Mozaffari protected area and Polond desert in the west of Ferdows, and the selection of desert hiking programs have strengthened the tourism aspects of this city.

The significant entertainment and tourism places in Ferdows

Mineral water

Ferdows mineral spa is a spa spring with healing properties located 20 kilometers north of city. A water recreation complex has been created for this spring, which welcomes guests.

Toon historical city complex

The ancient city of Toon, which was founded in the Parthian period, is the real place of the former life of the people of Ferdows city, which was damaged by a terrible earthquake in 1968, and the new city of Ferdows was constructed next to it. This collection contains many historical works, 24 of which have been registered in the list of national works. In this article, We will try to introduce you to the most important historical works of this city.

Toon Historic City

Olya theological school

This school was built at the end of the Safavid period by a person named “Mir Ali Beyk” and it was used as a school until the years before the 1968 earthquake. This school in Ferdows city is also one of the valuable monuments of Iran. One of its prominent features is the repetition of the octagonal shape in the plan of this valuable building.

Olya relegious School

Jame Mosque of Toon

The historic mosque of Ferdows city, which is known today as the Old Jame Mosque, belongs to the Seljuk period, and despite the destruction of parts of it in the 1968 Ferdows earthquake, after its reconstruction by the people, prayers are still held there.

Grand Mosque of Toon

Koushk complex in Ferdows city

The historical complex of Koushk includes a mosque, bathhouse, and water reservoir and is located in the east of Toon city, near Qain Gate. Koushk Mosque is the oldest mosque in South Khorasan province. The architectural style and form of the mosque belongs to the early period of Islam. In front of the entrance porch of the Koushk Mosque and inside the ground, there is the Koushk bathroom. There are two different opinions about the history of this bath. According to the first opinion, this bath was built at the same time as the Koushk Mosque and during the Timurid era. But to another theory, according to the architectural forms, this building may have been built in the Safavid period. Also, in the northeast of the entrance of the mosque, there is a reservoir with the same name, which is very old.

One of the interesting features of this bathroom is its location inside the ground, which is to increase resistance against earthquakes and prevents energy wastage. The light of the bathroom is provided through openings on the floor. On the floor of this bathroom, there are small channels through which the smoke from heating the bath water passed and heated the bathroom space. The interesting thing about this bathroom, which makes it special, is the presence of two separate sections for men and women, which made it possible to use it at the same time.

Ferdows city market reservoir

There is a reservoir on the side of the old bazaar of Toon city and in the distance between the Imamzadegan building and the Jame Mosque. Due to the location of this building in the bazaar row, as well as the square neighborhood, they call both the square reservoir and the bazaar reservoir. The building materials are ordinary bricks, lime mortar, Saroj mortar, plaster mortar, and stone chips. In the past, this reservoir has been used a lot as a source of drinking water for people, but it is unusable today.

Bazaar water store

Khairouz bath and Ferdows anthropology museum

Hammam Khairouz, or FerdowsAnthropology Museum, is a historical building from the Safavid period, which has been used as the Ferdows Anthropology Museum after restoration. Ferdows Museum of Anthropology includes two sections of bathing customs and the old jobs of Ferdows.

Religious Islamic school of Habibieh in Ferdowscity

The religious Islamic school of Habibieh was founded in Ferdows city by “Habibullah Amani Tooni” during the Safavid era. This school is considered the oldest seminary in South Khorasan province.

Hoz Anbar and Sayyedi Mosque in Ferdows city

Sayyedi reservoir is the oldest reservoir in South Khorasan province. The inscription on the foundation of this pond dates back to 890 AH. The Sayyedi Mosque, which dates back to the Safavid period, is located next to this reservoir. This mosque has a winter nave made entirely of clay and mud. Also, during the Qajar era, a summer nave was added to it.

The mausoleum of Imam Zadegan Sultan Muhammad and Ibrahim in Ferdows city

At the end of the old bazaar row and behind Jame Toon Mosque, there is a tomb known as Mazar, which belongs to Sultan Muhammad and Sultan Ibrahim, descendants of Imam Musa bin Jafar. The architectural style of this building belongs to the Timurid period. The dome of this building consists of two separate shells and is the only historical dome in South Khorasan province that is decorated with patterned tiles.

Ferdows Balade aqueduct

The aqueduct of Balade Ferdows is a series of aqueducts from the Sasanian period that still supplies water to part of the agricultural lands around this city. The outlet of this aqueduct is located near Baghistan Olya village. In July 2016, during the 40th UNESCO World Heritage Summit held in Istanbul, eleven Iranian aqueducts were registered as the 20th monument of Iran in the World Heritage List, and one of these aqueducts is Balade Ferdows Aqueduct. The Ferdows aqueduct consists of 15 sub-aqueducts, two springs, and some stray waters, some of which have dried up over time.

Qanat Baladeh Ferdows

The Sang sourakh (holed stone) of Ferdows city

Sang sourakh is a natural effect in the form of a large hole on top of a mountain with the same name, which is located 35 kilometers west of Ferdows city. The diameter of this hole is about 20 meters, which was created by water erosion in the limestone of the mountain.

Sang sourakh

Ferdows city castle mountain

Ferdows Castle Mountain, 10 kilometers south of the city, was the location of one of the important fortresses of the Ismaili government and the center of the establishment of this sect in the province of Qahestan and the south of Greater Khorasan. This castle, which is built on the top of the mountain, is registered in the list of national monuments of Iran and is one of the wonderful places in Ferdows city. In that period, Ferdows Castle had two walls and a fence inside each other and several watch towers. The castle was built on a high mountain on six levels and is a strategic place. One of the most beautiful parts of this castle is the four verandas in the palace of the castle and its residential spaces. To increase security against the attackers, Ferdows Castle is located in a place that ends in a precipice on three sides and can be entered only through an access road with a lower slope in the south of the castle. Beautiful ponds have been dug in the rocks downstream of the castle, which is used to store rainwater and snow.

Hassan Abad Castle

Hassan Abad Castle or Dokhtar Castle is another castle related to the Ismaili period, which dates back to the 12th century AD. This historical castle is located 8 km northwest of Ferdows city and 2 km from the abandoned village of Hassan Abad. This fort has a brick Tunnel in the heart of the ground that connects it to Kouh Qala, another historical Ismaili fort. This underground passage is connected to the middle of the historical city of Toon by another underground passage. Inside this underground Tunnel, which was found after the earthquake of 1968, the bodies of many dead people were discovered, which were arranged together inside this Toonnel and were placed in shrouds with Islamic works and verses of the Quran.

Polond desert

This desert is located at a distance of 40 kilometers west of Ferdows city and near the village of Polond. The presence of sandy hills next to the mountainous areas doubles the beauty and uniqueness of this desert. Also, among the unique natural attractions of this area are the dunes in the shape of a cheetah’s tail, which is known as the natural effect of the cheetah’s tail.

Polond Desert

Bagshahr Islamia near Ferdows city

Bagshahr Islamia is a beautiful city 5 km from Ferdows, most of its houses are built in the form of gardens and villas. In the past, the gardens of the people of Ferdows were located in this place, and in fact, the summer residence of most of them was also these gardens. In Islamia, a long street with water flowing on both sides and irrigating the old plane trees gave a special beauty to this summer resort.

Baghistan summer village of Ferdows city

Baghistan village is located 10 kilometers from Ferdows city and with its beautiful natural scenery and soaring plane trees, willows and sycamore trees, and fruit orchards, it is considered one of the holiday and tourism areas of Ferdows city. The water of the historical aqueduct of Ferdos village passes through this village and several water mills have been built along its way, which is considered one of the spectacular attractions of this village.

Ferdows souvenirs

Ferdows souvenirs include traditional foods, handicrafts, and particular agricultural products. The traditional dishes of Ferdows contain Ash Josh Pareh, Togi, Hun Leki, Qoruti, Kashk Ghana, Khoshdali, Sermuki. Ferdows carpet is one of the most important handicrafts of this city. Toubafi weaving, pottery, brick weaving, rugs, financial felt, mosaic work, and meshwork are among the most important handicrafts of this city. Also, agricultural products such as pomegranates, saffron, pistachios, almonds, cotton, walnuts, curds, and cumin are among the main souvenirs of the region. It is worth mentioning that 30,000 tons of pomegranates are produced in this city every year, 80% of it exported to Persian Gulf countries, South Korea, and other countries. Also, this city is one of the centers of saffron production in Iran, which is known as the best saffron in terms of aroma and coloring.


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